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                            王宗岳的《太極拳論》

                                 在太極拳古典理論著作中,被拳界評價最高的應是王宗岳的《太極拳論》。它從宏觀高層次用我國太極陰陽學說來論說太極學,提綱摯領,立論精辟,文詞簡煉,條理清晰,對太極拳的走架、推手和散手都有普遍和很高的指導意義。但因該文以理立論,比較抽象,對具體拳法講得不多,而且言簡意賅。因此在某些論述上引起了太極拳研習者的不同認識和爭論。對這些有爭議的地方作更深入的研究,當有助于太極拳理論和實踐的繼承和發展。
                            1.《雙重》
                              王宗岳在《太極拳論》中提出:“立如平準,活似車輪。偏沉則隨,雙重則滯。每見數年純功,不能運化者,率皆自為人制,雙重之病未悟耳!欲避此病,須知陰陽,粘即是走,走即是粘;陰不高陽,陽不離陰;陰陽相濟,方為懂勁”。由于《王論》中對雙重未作具體解釋,于是怎樣理解雙重,在拳界引起不少爭議。首先是,雙重之病是只發生在雙方比手之時,還是也會出現在走架之中?主張前者的人認為《王論》中指出:“率皆自為人制,雙重之病未悟耳”和“粘即是走,走即是粘”,明顯地是指雙方比手時才會出現雙重。主張后者的人則認為《王論》中也指出:“立如平準,活似車輪,偏沉則隨,雙重則滯,每見數年純功,不能運化者……”,可見雙重也指走架中的毛病。
                              對走架中何為雙重,也有不同的看法,大致有以下幾種:
                                (1)兩腿平均用力支持身體(如騎馬步)是雙重;
                                (2)雙手同時出擊是雙重;
                                (3)同側手足同時為實是雙重;
                                (4)兩足未分虛實或兩手未分虛實只是雙實,井非雙重,只有兩足兩手同時不分虛實,才是雙重;
                                (5)上下不相隨是雙重。
                              對比手中的雙重大致有下列看法:
                                (1)對方向我加力,我不知柔化而用力頂抗是雙重;
                                (2)丟匾也是雙重;
                                (3)只走不粘亦是雙重。
                              上面對雙重的各種解釋,有些是明顯錯誤的。有些雖然有相當道理,可惜都是從一個局部去理解和解釋,沒有從整體和從太極陰陽哲理方面去理解雙重的實質。現就此談談個人的看法。太極拳的哲學指導思想是太極陰陽論。太極動則分為陰陽,陰陽靜則合為太極(太極者,無極而生,陰陽之母也。動之則分,靜之則臺)。合太極時,陰陽將分未分是統一狀態下的協調;分陰陽時,陰陽對立交變是矛盾狀態下的協調。總的要求是陰陽相濟,互為其根。《王論》談到雙重時固然舉出了“自為人制”’‘粘即是走,走即是粘”等有關比手時的雙重,但也同時舉出了“立如平準,活似車輪。偏沉則隨,雙重則滯。每見數年純功不能運化者”等和走架相關的雙重。《王論》對雙重的基本觀點是:“欲避此病,須知陰陽……陰不離陽,陽不離陰,陰陽相濟,方為懂勁”。這種觀點是從整體去理解雙重的,包括了走架和比手。陰陽是矛盾對立而又協調統一的兩個方面。太極是陰陽平衡相合相抱的一個球體。太極球中的某一部分陽的減少同時也是陰的增加,它必然導致太極球中另一部分陽的增加和陰的減少,反之亦然。這就是陰陽交變,互為其根。這種此消彼長、互為其根的變化是在保持太極整體陰陽平衡的條件下進行的,這就是陰陽相濟。如果背離了陰陽平衡這個條件,就必然導致陰陽乖離,互相牽制、抵觸、排斥,而使太極的整體協調遭到破壞,失去了球體運動的圓轉順隨和輕靈的性質,而導致滯重不靈。這就是雙重的實質。
                              以虛實為例,虛為陰實為陽,右虛則左實,上慮則下實,手虛則足實;兩手分虛實,[NextPage]兩足分虛實。虛實分清當然是避免雙重的方法。但是,只從手或足或是其他局部的虛實變換中去理解雙重則是片面的,無法達到整體的陰陽相濟,解決不了雙重問題。武禹襄《十三勢說略》中說:“虛實宜分清楚,一處自有一處虛實,處處總有此一虛實。周身節節貫串,無令絲毫間斷”就明確無誤地說明了局部(如手足)的虛實必須服從全身的總虛實,才能達到陰陽相濟。因此,避免雙重之病不能只著眼于手和足或其他局部的陰陽虛實,而必須注意全身的陰陽虛實,使矛眉對立的兩個方面從整體上統一協調起來,消長轉化,互為其根。不互相牽制,不互相抵觸,更不互相排斥。這樣才能達到全身的安舒、輕靈、圓轉、順隨而不出現雙重。反之,無論動靜、虛實、開合,出現自相牽制、抵觸、排斥,即是不知陰陽,雙重之病未悟。
                              至于比手中出現的雙重,其根源仍在于走架中的雙重未悟。只是由于另一方的加入,兩個運動系統合成一個系統,增加了人我雙方的一對主要矛眉使情況更加復雜而已。比手中避雙重的關鍵還是在于保持自身整體的平衡協調,陰陽轉化互為其根,達到陰陽相濟。正如李亦畬《走架打手行工要言》中所說:“動靜固是知人,仍是問己。自己要安排得好,人一挨我,我不動彼絲毫,趁勢而入,接定彼勁,彼自跌出。如自己有不得力處,便是雙重未化,要于陰陽開合中求之”。具體地說,彼以剛采,我以柔應,避其勁端,接其勁側。保持自身的中正安舒,不偏不倚。通過腰、胯、腿和粘著點的螺旋纏繞,將對方來力的一部分引化到身外(左重則左虛,右重則右杏),這就是“走”(陰)。“走”只是陰陽交變互為其根整個過程的一半,其另一半是“粘”(陽)。《王論》說:“粘即是走,走即是粘”。也就是說,粘和走是合一的,是整體,不可分成兩截。柔走同時也就是剛粘。通過腰、胯、腿的旋轉將對方來力中未被引化的部分返回加于對方身上,控制其中心或勁源,這就是“粘”。做到了粘走合一’“左重則左虛而右已去,右重則右虛而左已去”,也就做到了“陰不離陽,陽不離陰,陰陽相濟”,而避免了雙重之病。這里有一個需要注意的關鍵是“守中。,外則“立身中正”、“尾閭正中”;內則“中氣放收,宰乎其中”。只有在“守中”的前提下,才能達到陰陽的整體平衡協調而相濟。
                              現舉兩例說明在走架中知陰陽避雙重之理:
                              (1)左云手:當左足向左開步時,左足上提變虛,右足松沉變實,隨著右足下沉為實,右手上棚為虛,配合右手變虛,左手下沉為實,此時左手之實又正好配合左足之虛。從另一個角度來看,當左足上提變虛時,左手下沉變實,隨著左手下沉變實,右手上捆變虛,配合右手變虛,右足松沉變實,此時右足之實又正好配合左足之虛。整個過程的虛實變換,節節貫串,相順相隨。正如武禹襄《十三勢說略》中說:“勿使有缺陷處,勿使有凹凸處,勿使有斷續處”,“局身節節貫串,勿令絲毫間斷。”
                              (2)右蹬腳:左足向下松沉為實,右足前蹬為虛,配合右足之虛,右手前擊為實,隨著石手前擊為實,左手向后放勁為虛,此時左手之虛又正好配合左足之實。有人認為,右足用勁前蹬,應為實,左足負擔全身重量,亦為實,因此該式是雙重。這是由于未能從整體去知陰陽而得出的錯誤判斷。實際上,右足雖用勁前蹬,但其發勁的基礎和源[NextPage]頭仍在左足下沉之實。因此,相對于左足而言,右足為虛。譬如人站于結了冰的河的岸邊,伸右足用力踩冰以試探其承受力,此時石足雖用力下踏,但仍是左足為實,右足為虛,否則即會跌入河中。在右蹬腳的情況下,雖然左右手分虛實,左右足分虛實,但從全身來看,相對于左足之實,右足和兩手都為虛,此即“三虛一實”(實際上,太極拳所有拳勢,任何時候四肢都應處于三虛一實的狀態,三虛是動,是氣勢騰挪;一實是靜,是精神貫注之處),才能保持整體的安舒、輕靈、順隨,避免了雙重之病。
                              以上是從身法上論雙重,其實,太極拳陰陽交變互為其根達到陰陽相濟的另一個關鍵,是心意的合一和意氣的靈活變換。王宗岳《十三勢歌》說:“意氣君來骨肉臣”;武禹襄在《太極拳解》事說:。心為令,氣為旗;神為主帥,身為驅使。;在《十三勢行功心解》中又說:“精神能提得起,則無遲重之虞,所謂‘頂頭懸’也;意氣須換得靈,乃有圓活之妙,所謂‘變轉虛實’也”。可見心、意、氣的靈活變換對全身陰陽相濟的重要作用。
                              2.“仰之則彌高,俯之則彌深;進之則愈長,退之則愈促。”
                              《王論》中的這句話,是對“左重則左虛,右重則右杏”的引伸,從仰、俯、進、退四個方面來說明以柔克剛,用柔勁順隨走化對方進攻的剛勁所產生的效果,但沒有說明達到這種效果的方法和過程。有人解釋為:‘彼使我仰,我以更高引之,彼使我俯,我以更低引之;彼退我進,我以更長逼之;彼進我退,我以更促引之。。有人說:“在推手過程中,不論對方向上或向下進攻,還是前進或后退,都沾隨對方,隨其攻上而上,隨其攻下而下,隨其前進而退,隨其后退而進。由于我的柔順隨從,使對方攻上有高不可攀之感,再攻,腳根就會浮起;攻下有深不可測之感,再攻,身體就會塌墜;前進有遠不可及之感,再進,則會前傾失勢;后退有身急步促之感,再退,就會仰傾失勢”。不過,單從字面去解釋并不能解決實際問題。因為,問題的實質不在于從字面去解釋文句,而在于弄清在實戰中怎樣才能做到“仰之則彌高,俯之則彌深;進之則愈長,退之則愈促。
                              如果只是從上、下、進、退去順隨對方,則當對方比自己身高手長時,只會使自己落于背勢而失敗。這樣的順隨就不是“舍己從人”而是。舍近求遠”,正是“差之毫厘,謬以千里”了。《王論》在“左重則左虛……退之則愈促”句中只提到了“走”的一面,而沒有提到“粘”的一面。我們要理解,由于“粘即是走,走即是粘;陰不離陽,陽不離陰;陰陽相濟,方為懂勁”是《王論》的中心思想,因此,提到了走就當然包括了粘。而粘走合一涉及到一系列細致而復雜的技擊方法,不是幾句話所能說得清楚的。《王論》是一篇提綱摯領,言簡意賅的論文,不可能詳細地去論述這些細致而復雜的問題,所以只談效果而不談具體方法和過程。我們學習《王論》,要全面學習它所提出的太極拳理法和各個要訣,特別是“粘即是走……方為懂勁”的中心思想,結合實踐,印證揣摩,方能收到效果。功久則自然“豁然貫通”而達到“從心所欲”。
                              太極拳用架的訓練過程就像登山一樣,循階而上步履艱辛,絕無[NextPage]捷徑可循。正如吳師爺所云“而其要則在乎練”。少侯先生幼年練習此功,因不堪忍受其苦曾想投井自盡,后被家人及時發現,經痛責后,發奮用功,終能繼承祖業。吳圖南師爺九歲開始習武,八易寒暑,后又拜少侯為師。少侯先生嚴格以求,讓他在八仙桌下練功,汗水浸透足靴;在演練打手時,更被少侯先生摔得遍體鱗傷,師爺不畏苦痛,練功不輟,終成一代名師。練習太極拳必須有百折不撓的毅力,萬夫不擋的勇氣和脫胎換骨的精神。
                             


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