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                            董其昌書畫鑒賞

                                           

                                董其昌生于明世宗嘉靖三十四年,卒于明毅宗崇禎九年。董其昌出身貧寒之家,但在仕途上春風得意,青云直上。公元萬歷十七年,三十四歲的董其昌舉進士,開始了他此后幾十年的仕途生涯。當過編修、講官,后來官至南京禮部尚書,太子太保等職。他對政治異常敏感,一有風波,他就堅決辭官歸鄉。
                                董其昌走上書法藝術的道路,出于一個非常偶然的機會。起因是在考試時書法不好,遂發憤用功自成名家。這在他的《畫禪室隨筆》有所記述,其中還自述學書經過:他在十七歲時參加會考,松江知府衷貞吉在批閱考卷時,本可因董其昌的文才而將他名列第一,但嫌其考卷上字寫得太差,遂將第一改為第二,同時將字寫得較好些的董其昌堂侄董源正拔為第一。這件事極大地刺激了董其昌,自此鉆研書法。
                                董其昌的山水畫大體有兩種面貌,一種是水墨或兼用淺絳法,這種面貌的作品比較常見;另一種則是青綠設色,時有出以沒骨,比較少見。他十分注重師法古人的傳統技法,題材變化較少,但在筆和墨的運用上,有獨特的造詣。他的繪畫作品,經常是臨仿宋元名家的畫法,并在題識中加以標榜,雖然處處講摹古,并不是泥古不化,而是能夠脫窠臼,自成風格,其畫法特點,在師承古代名家的基礎上,以書法的筆墨修養,融會于繪畫的皴、擦、點劃之中,因而他所作山川樹石、煙云流潤,柔中有骨力,轉折靈變,墨色層次分明,拙中帶秀,清雋雅逸。他的畫風在當時聲望顯著,成為“華亭派”的首領。
                                董其昌的書法成就也很高,董的書法以行草書造詣最高,他對自己的楷書,特別是小楷也相當自負。他的書法綜合了晉、唐、宋、元各家的書風,自成一體,其書風飄逸空靈,風華自足。筆畫園勁秀逸,平淡古樸。用筆精到,始終保持正鋒,少有偃筆、拙滯之筆;在章法上,字與字、行與行之間,分行布局,疏朗勻稱,力追古法。用墨也非常講究,枯濕濃淡,盡得其妙。
                                回歸家鄉的董其昌整天沉浸在翰墨當中。許多附庸風雅的官僚豪紳和腰纏萬貫的商人紛至沓來,請他寫字、作畫、鑒賞文物,潤筆贄禮相當可觀。社會地位的提高和財富的空前增加,使得董其昌完全蛻變了,從一個初不起眼的角色,迅速演變成名動江南的藝術家兼官僚大地主,到后來則成為擁有良田萬頃、游船百艘、華屋數百間的松江地區勢壓一方的首富。
                                官帙的光芒和金錢的力量,會加速人的社會角色的轉換,對意志力不強的人發出難以抵擋的誘惑,從而腐蝕、迷亂人的本性,使之異化、變質。
                                董其昌的貪婪也的確不比他的同鄉前輩遜色。也許是年輕時家境不富裕,董其昌一旦擁有了社會知名度,內心的渴求就變得急切,貪婪程度讓人吃驚,對錢財的攫取到了無所不用其極的地步,“膏腴萬頃,輸稅不過三分”。
                                不知檢點的董其昌作惡多端,引起了民憤,事后為此進行遮掩,說是為名所累。毛祥麟說得好,這怎么能歸結于為名所累呢?而是董其昌的大行有虧!人在做天在看。
                                董其昌,一個有功名且在書畫藝術和文物鑒賞方面有相當造詣的文人,墮落成一個為非作歹鄉里的惡霸,成為書畫史上有名的惡棍,不能不讓人倒吸一口涼氣。
                             


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