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                            中國古代畫家——吳道子

                              

                                吳道玄,字道子,陽翟(今河南禹縣)人。舊名道子。少時孤貧,像大多數的唐代文人一樣,吳道子也選擇了游學天下,他曾到洛陽,向當時的書法名家張旭、賀知章學習書法,很不幸,不知是資質問題還是審美問題,他沒有學成。轉而學畫,未及弱冠,已經是深造圖繪的妙處了,若不是吳道子天性穎悟,靠積習苦功是達不到他二十歲所能達到的高度的。

                                吳道子曾在韋嗣立處當過小吏,后來做過兗州邱尉。唐明皇聞其名,召入供奉,任以內教博士,更為今名,復以道子為字,由此名振天下。吳道子繪畫大率師法張僧繇,甚至有人認為他是張僧繇投胎轉世。至于吳氏畫風的變態縱橫,與造物不相上下,則讓人懷疑縱是張僧繇也不能及也。世稱畫有六法,顧愷之能齊備。傳說顧愷之畫鄰家女子,以棘刺畫像之心而使真人呻吟,道子畫驢于僧房,和尚一天黃昏聞有踏藉破迸之聲。張僧繇畫龍點睛,龍聞雷電破壁飛去;道子畫龍,則鱗甲飛動,每到天下雨則煙霧生騰。在中古繪畫史上顧愷之冠絕于前,張僧繇繼絕于后,能夠與上兩家冠名于史冊的,大概也就只有吳道子了。

                                大唐開元年間,將軍裴旻居母喪,請道子畫鬼神于天宮寺,資母冥福。道子讓裴旻屏去喪服,用軍裝纏結,馳馬舞劍,激昂頓挫,雄杰奇偉,觀者數千百人,無不駭慄。而道子解衣磅礴,因用其氣以壯畫思,落筆風生,為天下奇觀。庖丁解牛,輪扁斲輪,皆以技進乎道;而張旭觀公孫大娘舞劍器,則草書入神,道子之于畫,也大概是這樣的吧!況且能夠使悍將屈尊,如此氣概,不是常人所能為的。道子每一揮毫,必須酣飲,此與為文章何異,正以氣為主耳。

                                在長安、洛陽兩地,吳道子曾作寺觀壁畫三百余間,畫中神怪人物千奇百怪,沒有一處雷同的痕跡。吳道子早年行筆較細,風格稠密,中年之后畫風變的雄放,線條遒勁,富于運動感,粗細互變,虛實相生,而且點畫之間時間缺落,有筆不周而意周之妙。后人將他的畫風和張僧繇的并舉,成為“疏體”,以別于顧愷之、陸探微的“密體”。而吳道子所畫佛像的衣褶,飄舉飛動,后人稱為“吳帶當風”。其畫喜用焦墨鉤線,然后略施淡彩于墨痕中,意態叢生,又稱“吳裝”。唐張彥遠《歷代名畫記》稱:“自顧陸以降,畫跡鮮存,難悉詳之。唯觀吳道玄之跡,可謂六法俱全,萬象必盡,神人假手,窮極造化也。所以氣韻雄壯,幾不容于縑素;筆跡磊落,遂恣意于墻壁;其細畫又甚稠密,此神異也。”宋蘇軾亦曰:“道子畫人物,如以燈取影,逆來順往,旁見側出。橫斜平直,各相乘除,得自然之數,不差毫末。出新意于法度之中,寄妙理于豪放之外,所謂游刃余地,運斤成風,蓋古今一人而已。”

                                議者謂有唐之盛,文至于韓愈,詩至于杜甫,書至于顏真卿,畫至于吳道玄,天下之能事畢矣。傳世畫跡有《天王送子圖》《釋迦圖》,皆為后人摹本,現皆藏日本。


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