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                            煉丹濟世話葛洪

                                葛洪(281~341),字稚川,號抱樸子。丹陽句容人。他十三歲喪父,通過勤奮攻讀,終于博覽群書,成為當時不可多得的文武全才。葛洪從祖葛玄,學道得仙術,傳弟子鄭隱。葛洪從鄭隱學習,盡得其傳。上黨鮑玄精通道術,葛洪拜鮑玄為師學道,不久又與鮑玄的女兒結婚。夫妻二人志同道合,一同修道煉丹。他倆在風景秀麗的杭州西子湖畔建抱樸道院,隱居不仕,潛心研究醫學和煉丹術,取得很高的成就,成為著名的醫學家和煉丹家。后人為了紀念他,把他居住的地方稱之為“葛嶺”。葛洪卒后,舉尸入棺,輕如蟬蛻,世以為尸解仙去,人們尊稱他為“葛仙翁”。葛嶺智果寺西南為初陽臺,葛洪修煉于此。初陽臺下有投丹井,相傳葛洪曾投丹于井中。此井后歸馬姓人家。明代宣德間大旱,馬家甃井,見井底有石匣、石瓶。石匣牢固不可開啟,石瓶中有丸藥好像芡實,拿來一吃,淡而無味,便丟掉了。一個姓施的漁翁拾來吃了一枚,后來活了一百零六歲。自從浚井后,井水的水質腐敗不可食,重新把石匣投到井里后,又變得清洌如故。石匣中的奧秘,當時的人自然是莫明其妙,我們現在也未必能夠知道,可見葛洪已經掌握了很先進的針對水源的藥物防腐消毒技術。

                                葛洪力主儒道結合,道教應以“神仙養身為內,儒家應世為外”。他的著作主要有《抱樸子》內外篇、《肘后備急方》等。《肘后備急方》是葛洪的醫學著作,葛洪在醫療實踐中收集、研究各種藥方,為民治病,提倡廉、便、驗的大眾化的醫療措施。他對醫學中的實際問題常親自實驗,取得不少發明發現,如提出以白紙蘸尿染黃如蘗者即為黃疸,以及首次發現并描述天花之病狀等。總結出較多治療急癥的有效方劑和方法,如以狂犬腦髓敷傷口治狂犬病,以青蒿莆絞汁治瘧疾,以小夾板療骨折復位等。這些都是醫學史上的刨舉。他還重視灸法治病,并首次記述捏積、食道異物急救、放腹水等治療技術。

                                《抱樸子內篇》講神仙方藥、養生延年。講煉丹的主要是其中“金丹”、“仙藥”、“黃白”3卷。葛洪在大量的煉丹實驗基礎上,他熟悉了許多無機物質的組成和一些比較簡單的化學反應。在《抱樸子內篇》里,發現“丹砂燒之成水銀,積變又還成丹砂”,丹砂即硫化汞,加熱即分解而得到汞。汞與硫磺化合又生成黑色的硫化汞,再在密閉容器中調節溫度,便升華為赤紅色的結晶硫化汞。采用硫化汞制水銀,葛洪是最早詳細記錄這一反應的人。葛洪又指出:“鉛性白也,而赤之以為丹;丹性赤也,而白之以為鉛。”這是說鉛可以變為鉛白,即堿式碳酸鉛,鉛白又可以變成赤色的鉛丹,即四氧化三鉛:鉛丹則可以變還為鉛白,最后回復為鉛。這表明葛洪對鉛的化學變化作過系列實驗考察。他是我國煉丹術發展中承前啟后的人物。他對煉丹方法的具體著述對后來的煉丹家影響很大。由于葛洪在發展我國早期化工 工業上的業績,歷代印染、釀造、顏料等行業均奉之為宗祖。所以英國學者李約瑟說:“整個化學最重要的根源之一,是地地道道從中國傳出去的。”


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