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                            古文獻中的“以人為本”一詞(圖)

                            房玄齡注《管子》

                                現在人們對“以人為本”一詞使用較多,但對其來源、出處很多文章卻語焉不詳。“以人為本”一詞可能最早是出自戰國至西漢年間成書的《管子》一書。原文如下:

                                夫霸王之所始也,以人為本。本理則國固,本亂則國危。故上明則下敬,政平則人安,士教和則兵勝敵,使能則百事理,親仁則上不危,任賢則諸侯服。(《管子·第九卷·二十三、霸言》,時代文藝出版社,2008年7月第1版,第165頁)

                                五代后晉開運二年(945年)由劉煦修纂的古代典籍二十四史之一《舊唐書》記載:唐貞觀三年(629年),中郎將常何的門客,后被唐太宗委以監察御史重任的奇人——馬周,在給唐太宗的奏表中引用了“以人為本”一詞:“臨天下者,以人為本。欲令百姓安樂,唯在刺史、縣令。”(《舊唐書·卷七十四·列傳第二十四馬周》,中華書局,1991年重印1975年版,第2618頁)

                                此后由歐陽修、宋祁等人于宋嘉祐五年(1060年)重新修訂的《新唐書》同一篇目中,將“以人為本”一詞照搬,只是詞句表述略有不同。

                                 1494年,由羅貫中成書的我國古典文學名著,明代弘治甲寅序本《三國志通俗演義》問世。其中第四十一回對“以人為本”一詞也有引用:“忽哨馬報曰:‘曹操大軍已屯樊城,使人收拾船筏,即日渡江趕來也。’眾將皆曰:‘江陵要地,足可拒守。今擁民眾數萬,日行十余里,似此幾時得至江陵?倘曹兵到,如何迎敵?不如暫棄百姓,先行為上。’玄德泣曰:‘舉大事者必以人為本。今人歸我,奈何棄之?’”(《三國演義》,長春出版社1995年4月第1版,第326頁)

                                由此可見,“以人為本”是一句成語,不但源自經史子集,而且散見于民間文學作品。

                                盡管“以人為本”作為一條政見,不同的歷史時代、不同的政治人物,可以給予不同的解讀;但最早誕生時,它的原意和本意究竟是什么,確有搞清楚的必要。

                                管子,名夷吾,字仲,安徽潁上人。春秋初期政治家。他由好友鮑叔牙推薦任齊國宰相,大力推行各項改革,輔助齊桓公成為春秋五霸之首,且長達四十年,可謂政功卓著。

                                管仲曾告誡齊桓公:若想成就一番霸業,“則必從其本事矣”。齊桓公趕緊彎腰離開座席,拱手向前追問:“敢問何謂其本?”管仲回答:“齊國百姓,公之本也。”

                                《管子·牧民》開宗明義就說:“治國之道,必先富民,民富則易治,民貧則難治。”所以管仲主張:“以天下之財,利天下之人”。這里的“人”,涵蓋的范圍十分廣泛,幾乎包括了除統治者和奴隸之外的所有群體。

                                管仲把安民、順民、利民、惠民、富民政策作為治國的核心內容,不遺余力地推薦給一心想成就一番千秋霸業的齊桓公,可謂用心良苦。但其出發點和核心思想又是什么呢?管仲當了齊國宰相之后,齊桓公曾多次問政于管仲。桓公問:若想修明政治,利行天下,應該從何做起?管仲明確回答:“始于愛民”。并提出許多具體措施。齊桓公都言聽計從,一一采納。這其中就有最著名的以贍養老人、撫育幼兒、撫恤孤兒、供養殘疾、照顧鰥寡、慰問病人、救助貧困、安撫烈屬等九項措施為主要內容的“九惠之教”。“一曰老老,二曰慈幼,三曰恤孤,四曰養疾,五曰合獨,六曰問疾,七曰通窮,八曰振困,九曰接絕。”(《管子·入國》)例如贍養老人規定,國(國都)和都邑(城鎮)要設有專管敬老事務的官員。七十歲以上的老人,一個兒子可以免征兵役;政府保證每三個月給他們贈送一次肉吃。八十歲以上的老人,兩個兒子可以免征賦稅;每月給他們贈送一次肉吃。九十歲以上的老人,所有的兒子都可以免征役賦,保證他們每天有酒喝、有肉吃;如果人死了國家還可以提供棺槨。官員有責任經常教育老人的子女孝敬老人。凡此種種,十分具體。結果齊國實行管仲的這些富民強國的措施沒幾年,天下歸心。諸國的百姓就像潮水般涌入齊國,使齊國人才濟濟,兵強馬壯,國力日漸強盛,為齊桓公日后稱雄奠定了雄厚的物質基礎。

                                管仲認為:“政之所興,在順民心;政之所廢,在逆民心。”(《管子·牧民》)這是我國春秋戰國時期前無古人,首次最深刻、明確、豐富地表述了民本思想內涵。盡管當時正處于從奴隸制向封建制轉變的偉大歷史變革中,應運而生了諸如以孔子的“仁者愛人”、墨子的“兼愛”、孟子的“民貴君輕”、荀子的“民水君舟”等思想為代表的民本、人本主義思潮,但管仲的以人為本思想,作為這股思潮的先驅和淵源,以其獨樹一幟的鮮明立場,無情地滌蕩著千百年來形成的“君貴民輕”傳統腐朽統治思想,開一代歷史先河。即使在之后的諸子百家中,也絕無僅有。難怪后來的韓非子也不禁贊嘆道:“夫一匡天下,九合諸侯,美之大者也。”(《韓非子·難二》)

                                盡管從總體上看中國古代思想家的思想主旨是為維護封建統治服務的,但其中也不乏一些思想的精華,以人為本就比較準確地體現了中國歷史上正確的治國安邦核心思想。當然,它也是需要有具體內容和法律制度保障才能發揮效用的,否則就是一句毫無意義的政治空話。

                                今天,我國也正處于一個前所未有的偉大歷史變革之中。黨的十六大以來,以胡錦濤同志為總書記的黨中央提出了“堅持以人為本,樹立全面、協調、可持續的發展觀,促進經濟社會和人的全面發展”。它深刻揭示了發展的科學性要求,反映了當代經濟社會的發展規律,是符合中國特色社會主義現代化發展要求的科學理論,體現了代表時代發展趨勢的科學精神,順應了時代發展趨勢,對中國特色社會主義現代化建設具有重大的指導意義。同時,也賦予了“以人為本”以全新的歷史內涵。


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