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                            作為哲學家的劉禹錫----范志禮

                            中華傳統文化標桿人物 中華傳統文化研究會名譽會長 中華辭賦作家 實力派畫家 高級(國學)培訓師 

                            作為哲學家的劉禹錫
                            范志禮

                                劉禹錫(772-842),字夢得,漢族,中山無極人,(一說彭城人,洛陽),唐代文學家,哲學家,自稱是漢中山靖王后裔,曾任監察御史,是王叔文政治改革集團的一員。唐代中晚期著名詩人,有“詩豪”之稱,與柳宗元并稱“劉柳”,晚年住在洛陽與白居易唱和較多,時稱“劉白”。他的家庭是一個世代以儒學相傳的書香門第,后來“永貞革新”失敗被貶為朗州(今湖南常德)司馬。
                                作為文學家的劉禹錫的文學成就在中國文學史上可謂獨樹一幟,其《陋室銘》更是家喻戶曉。但是,作為哲學家的劉禹錫,人們并不熟悉,這里就他的哲學思想作一淺談。
                                劉禹錫的哲學思想具有鮮明的唯物主義傾向。主要著作是《天論》三篇。作為現代的辯證唯物主義和歷史唯物主義的大師,毛澤東主席生前十分推崇劉禹錫,不僅是因為他的文學成就,更是基于他的唯物主義哲學思想。
                                《天說》是柳宗元在永州時寫的一篇短文,是同韓愈就天有無意志問題進行論戰的。毛主席對《天說》很熟悉。1963年5月,他在杭州中央工作會議期間的一次談話中說:“柳宗元30歲到40歲有10年都在永州,他的山水散文,與韓愈論辯的文章,就是在永州寫的。”毛主席還說:“劉禹錫發展了這種唯物主義”,指劉禹錫的《天論》上、中、下三篇。
                                《天論》是劉禹錫哲學思想的代表作,主要論述了天的物質性、天與人的關系、產生天命論的根源等重大問題。
                                劉禹錫和柳宗元都信奉佛教。但在宇宙論方面,劉禹錫繼承了荀子以來的唯物主義自然觀。他以自然科學為根據,補充了柳宗元的自然觀。在對自然界的認識方面,劉禹錫認為整個自然界充滿了有形的物質實體,天地之內不存在無形的東西。他把佛教的空無物質化、具體化,使之更易于人們理解和把握。他認為宇宙間并沒有真正的“空”和“無”,而是充滿了物質。“空”是一種特殊的物質形態,“空”不能超越物質形體而獨立存在。這是對中國古代唯物主義自然觀的重大發展。所謂“天”,不過是“有形之大者”,同樣也是物質。這一闡述,透徹地說明了世界的物質性。
                                關于宇宙萬物的生成和發展,他提出了天與人“交相勝,還相用”的觀點,具有積極的進取精神。他認為,“大凡入形器者,皆有能有不能。天(自然),有形之大者也;人,動物之尤者也。天之能,人固不能也;人之能,天亦有所不能也”。天與人各有其自身的自然特點,“交相勝”,“還相用”。人雖不能干預自然界的職能和規律,但卻可以利用和改造自然。
                                他認為萬物的生長、發展是一種自然過程,動植物和人類是天地陰陽之氣交互作用產生的。他還認為客觀世界的發展變化有一定規律,宇宙萬物是在互相矛盾和互相依存中無窮地運動發展著的。天地萬物各有其不同的職能和作用。自然界的職能在于生長繁殖萬物,萬物在生殺、壯健、衰老的自然發展過程中,遵循強勝弱敗的競爭規律;人的職能在于利用自然規律和自然界所提供的物質資料,進行各種生產活動,向自然界謀取人們生活的需用品。劉禹錫提出:“天之所能者,生萬物也;人之所能者,治萬物也。”(《天論》上)他認為天不能干預人類社會的“治”或“亂”,人也不能改變自然界的運動規律。他還以科學知識為根據,宣傳無神論,批判有神論。
                                談到對有神論社會根源的看法他認為,人之所以產生唯心主義思想,是與社會現實有密切關系的。“法大行”的時候,社會上“是為公是,非為公非”,人們就不會產生禍福來自天命的思想。蹈道必賞,違善必罰,人們就會說,禍福決定于人的行為,與天沒有關系。在法大弛的社會里,是非顛倒過來,賞恒在佞,罰恒在直,人們對不合理的現象找不到解釋,就不得不把一切歸之于天。他又認為,當“理明”時,人們就不會講“天命”;當“理昧”時,社會上是非不清,就不會不講天命。劉禹錫從法弛和理昧來解釋有神論產生的根源,可謂見解獨到。這是在認識論方面的一個重大貢獻,他指出,神是人在一定條件下創造出來的,是具有積極意義的。
                                總之,劉禹錫的學說,閃爍著樸素辯證唯物主義的光輝,把中國古代關于自然觀的理論提高到了一個新的水平。但是,也應看到,他的歷史局限性,一是對思維科學認識不足,二是把天人關系絕對化,這樣往往會引人走入以偏概全的迷途。


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