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                            淺談中國古代哲學中的整體思維---范志禮

                            中華傳統文化標桿人物 中華傳統文化研究會名譽會長 中華辭賦作家 實力派畫家 高級(國學)培訓師

                            淺談中國古代哲學中的整體思維

                            范志禮

                                中華古代哲學,也即中華優秀傳統文化中的整體思維突出表現在上古的混沌宇宙說、道家的元氣說、儒家的孝教說、釋家的一真說之中,這種整體思維與天人合一的和諧思維相一致,最終指向是和諧一體,是大同世界,是人的全面發展。
                                整體思維在馬克思主義哲學來說就是聯系的思維,這在中國古代哲學中已有相當成熟的運用,在充滿哲理的《黃帝內經》中也有特別突出的體現。《黃帝內經》的藏象學說就將人體解剖與生理、病理及臨床辨證論治緊密地結合在一起;五運六氣學說則將天文、地理、氣候、氣象、生物、生理、病理等學科緊密地結合在一起;病因學說不僅包括生物、物理、化學等各種致病因素,而且與天文、地理、氣候、氣的生成和發展規律都有聯系。由此可見,中醫學雖然古老,但卻是一門因整體思維而有所建樹的古代科學。
                                整體思維在儒家王道論上的表現就更為突出。“天下公器,唯有德者居之,無德,人可誅之。”實際上,中國社會的進步,從這個角度說,就是一部有德誅無德的歷史,包括中國共產黨領導全國人民推翻國民黨反動派的歷史。這個歷史規律在世界其它國家也是成立的。這是由社會整合規律決定的。儒家這種社會整合理論就是整體思維的一種結晶。這種思維模式是理解歷史更化的通道。
                                佛教強調人們在認識宇宙人生真相時要回歸自性。自性是什么?自性是本原之性,是人類整體思維的基礎。佛教說它既是物質又不是物質,不能說它有,也不能說它無。這好像不好理解,但正是這種狀態,才是整體思維的前提。這是不可分不可說的無限極小的凝縮體,與道家的無相一致。這種不可說不可思狀態,是寂滅境界,是體用、物我、心物一體的瞬間狀態,這個瞬間狀態就是物質運動變化的無限小的存在狀態,是相對靜止的狀態,可以忽略不計,也可以理解為靜止不動,恰恰就是這樣的狀態,才具有無窮的生命力,具有最圓滿的智慧,沒有人能奈何它。它就是宇宙,就是整體,就是趨向無限小又可集合為無限大的宇宙粒子。這一整體思維是打開思維密碼和思維與宇宙之間關系的鑰匙。
                                無獨有偶,道家的一生二,二生三,三生萬物,一與此同。它說得是無限宇宙的一,這個無限宇宙好像無形無影,無邊無際,實際上它是宇宙微粒子的無窮大集合,這個元氣的集合以陰陽為二,對立統一,以磁場強弱生化萬物,或成形可視,或大象無形。這些都屬于整體思維的范疇。這種整體思維是破解無限宇宙神秘問題的法寶。

                             

                             


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