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                            國學哲學本原問題的物質屬性---范志禮

                                當前,國學研究和傳播日益篤實,這是中國文化復興實現中國夢的前兆,但不少學者在闡述哲學本原問題時,要么含糊其辭,要么神秘至上,這是應引起注意的。
                                我們認為,對國學哲學本原問題的解釋,首先應重視其物質屬性,因為這是把握思維現象的關鍵,否則就會從思想上造成極大混亂。
                                國學哲學的本原問題包括儒家的“明德”、佛家的“自性”、道家的“道”。
                                儒家講治國,追究人之本原,側重人生哲學研究,強調追求高尚的目標德操,并認為孝是德之本,是明德。孝心——孝的思維是人的本性和美德,是與做人教育密切聯系的人類情感現象,是思維發展到一定階段的產物和產物的發展,而思維是大腦神經的功能,具有物質屬性,所以,孝心依賴其物質屬性和社會屬性而存在,隨著生產力和社會發展與時俱進,具有不同內涵。因此,把孝道神秘化和形而上學化都有失偏頗。
                                佛家講治心,探究思維本原,側重思維哲學研究,強調人的自性、自性本足,并認為自性本空。人之自性,又稱佛性,是悟道的能力,也既思維認識能力,同樣是人腦的神經功能;說自性本足,是指人生來既有思維認識能力;自性本空,是說思維認識能力時時刻刻都處在活動變化中。因此可知,“自性”的基礎是“物質”,是人腦物質運動狀態的反映,并無神秘可言。將其說得神秘莫測,甚至據此推出“靈魂不滅”謬談,是有欠斟酌的。
                                道家講治身,側重自然哲學研究,強調道與空無。許多學者認為,道生于萬物之先,不可說明白。并且順著“道不可知,是天地之先”而推出其是獨立于物質之外的形而上之“精神”,進而陷入神創論、不可知論。違背著者原意。
                                實際上,道家始祖老子對道已經作了比較透徹的解釋。
                               《道德經 十四章》:“視而不見,名之曰微。聽而不聞,名之曰希,捫而不得,名之曰夷,三者不可至計,故混而為一。”也即道。“道啊,似或存。”這已明確說明道是一種看不到、摸不到、聽不到的存在物。
                               《道德經》中還有許多地方談到道:
                                “一者,其上不謬,其下不伆,尋尋啊!可名也,復歸于無物。是謂無狀之狀,無物之像,是謂昒望、惚恍。”講得是道的形態特征。“道沖,而用之有弗盈,淵啊,如萬物宗。”這是說其是構成萬物的基礎。
                                可見,老子在探討自然物質運動變化特性的過程中,已肯定地認為道有物質屬性,只是一時說不清楚。當然,一般說來,道是指客觀事物的發展規律和原理,但是,道首先是一種物質存在。
                                為了進一步探討這種存在,我們可以將現代基本粒子理論與宇宙無限觀點相結合,解釋老子所覺察到的這種“惚恍”狀態,道之微可以理解為物質微粒的無限極小狀態。物質無限可分,分到無影無形,分到極小,甚至小于量子,稱為“宇宙粒子”,其形神可略去不計。這便是道的存在狀態,既“空”的狀態。這種狀態具有生發萬物的偉力,因此如萬物之宗。道之大可以理解為宇宙無限大狀態,也既“宇宙粒子”無處不在的狀態。這兩者便是道的物質屬性。一方面,它是物質的,是宇宙粒子;一方面它無影無形,鋪天蓋地,無限之大,生發萬物。
                                如上所述,既實現了國學哲學思想成果與現代科學研究成果的統一,又找出了國學哲學對本原問題思考的科學價值,是應當引起有識之士注意的。


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