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                            沈陽市民俗風情

                              滿漢全席是我國歷史上著名的筵席之一,也是清王朝最高級的國宴。它是由滿點漢菜所組成。滿點又稱“滿洲餑餑席”,以點心為主,菜肴品種并不豐富,烹調方法也較簡單。后來在滿席基礎上加入一些漢族菜肴,使其在原料、品種、制法、口味、形象上都十分豐富多彩,稱為滿漢全席。

                              此席在滿清政權入關以后逐漸形成。創于康熙年間,相傳清圣祖玄燁在皇宮內首嘗,并御書“滿漢全席”,使滿漢全席名噪一時。當時滿漢全席有宮內和宮外之別,宮內的滿漢全席專供天子、皇叔、皇兄、皇太后、妃子、貴人等享用;近親皇族子嗣、功臣(漢族只限二品以上官員和皇帝心腹)才有資格參加宮內朝廷的滿漢全席。宮外滿漢全席,常常是由滿族一二品官員主持科考和地方會議,以滿漢全席招待欽差大臣,入席時要按品次,佩戴朝珠,公服入席。

                              滿漢全席規定菜肴總數為108件,其中,南菜54件,北菜54件,點菜不在其中,隨點隨加。滿洲餑餑大小花色品種44道,一席使用面粉44斤8兩,從主副食品種上可見滿漢全席的規模了。元日宴也稱元旦宴、元會宴。清代例行宴會之一。禮部主辦,光祿寺供置,精膳司部置。《清史稿·志》:“元日宴,崇德初定制,設宴崇政殿,王、貝勒、貝子、公等各進筵食牲酒,外籍王、貝勒亦如是。順治十年,令親王、世子、郡王暨外籍王、貝勒各進牲酒,不足,光祿寺益之,御筵則尚膳監供備。康熙13年罷,越數歲復故。康熙23年改燔炙為肴羹,去銀器,王以下進肴羹筵席有差。”雍正四年,對元日宴的儀式、陳設、席次、宴會所奏音樂及舞蹈均做了規定。滿族大宴清朝入關前的一種宴會。規模較大,多以招待一般身份的外部族頭人,如朝鮮使臣、明朝的降官降將、公主與額附回闕省親等。此宴帶有喜慶性質,通常由皇帝親自出席。一般設幾桌到幾十桌。多以牛羊肉為主,獸肉次之。通常烹煮的肉食,塊大、質嫩,用解食刀割食。大宴也設酒,但出于禮貌,客人的食、飲均不能盡興,只是一種禮儀。皇帝離宴,大宴也宣告結束。千叟宴為清代宮廷盛大的宴禮之一。場面最大,規模最盛,耗資也最巨。清十代帝王260多年中,只在康乾盛世舉辦過四次。千叟宴即為千名老叟參加的宴禮。但實際參加的并非一千人。如康熙53年三月慶六旬“萬壽”曾兩次宴請65歲以上的老者2800余人與宴。乾隆61年(即嘉慶元年)乾隆舉行千叟宴,入宴的群臣耆老和并未入座的達5000多人。所有擬定參加千叟宴的人員,皆由皇帝欽定。而后由有關衙門分別行文通知。宴前需要大量的物質準備。開宴之前,在外膳房的指揮下,依照入席耆老品位的高低,預先擺設千叟宴席。除寶座(皇帝的座位)前的御宴外,一般按東西兩路設席,依封建等級制度分一等桌張和次等桌張兩級設擺,餐具和膳品也有明顯的區別。宴中奏宮廷樂曲,舉行各式封建禮儀,反映了封建王朝窮奢極欲的腐朽生活。滿族筵席指清朝入關前四滿族的一般宴會,規模較小,人數不多,也較為隨便。這種筵席只在炕上設炕桌,地面不設桌椅。有時連炕桌也不設,在露天地里,鋪張獸皮,食客席地而餐。菜肴主要有火鍋,多陶制,以豬肉、羊肉為主料,佐料有鹽、醬等,不分季節,冬夏皆設。其它菜肴多是燉菜,如燉牛肉、燉羊肉、燉豬肉或燉鹿肉、狍子肉等。酒以燒酒(白酒)為主,有時以蘆酒為輔。主食有稗子米飯、秫米飯,也有蒸蕎面、玉面餑餑等,當然,宮庭筵席不上這類主食。


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