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                            我國最早的宮殿建筑群

                              考古學家最近在我國已知最早的大型宮殿基址———河南偃師二里頭遺址的2號宮殿下面,發掘出一座時代更早、規模更大、結構更為復雜的大型建筑基址,將迄今為止可確認的我國最早的宮殿建筑群的年代提早約百年左右。

                              這座現編為3號的建筑基址屬于二里頭文化早期,它結構復雜,規模龐大,是迄今為止可確認的二里頭文化最早的大型夯土基址。它南北窄長,已探明的長度達150余米,主體部分至少由三重庭院組成。

                              過去由于材料所限,學術界對肇始期的中國早期宮室建筑的認識來源于過去發掘的二里頭遺址1號、2號宮殿,認為其形制簡單,獨門獨院,到了稍后的偃師商城時期,宮室建筑的結構才復雜起來,3號基址的揭露改變了這種看法。

                              發現于1959年的河南偃師二里頭遺址,時代約距今3850年—3550年,相當于我國歷史上的夏、商王朝時期。而考古發現始建于二里頭文化晚期的1號、2號宮殿基址,是此前學術界確認的我國最早的大型宮殿基址。

                              早在1978年對二里頭的考古發掘中,就發現2號宮殿基址下疊壓著二里頭文化早期的大面積夯土遺存,但它的規模、形制結構以及具體年代等問題都有待解明。鑒于此,二里頭考古工作隊近年將田野工作的重點放到對二里頭早期建筑及其與晚期建筑基址關系的探尋上,自2001年秋季起進行了為期4個季度的發掘,發掘面積達3000多平方米。

                              發掘結果表明,2號基址下面疊壓著時代更早、規模更大、結構更為復雜的二里頭文化早期大型建筑基址。現編號為3號、5號的兩座大型建筑東西并列,其間的通道下發現了長逾百米的木結構排水暗渠。

                              考古隊在3號基址中院和南院院內還分別發現了成排的中型墓葬,現已清理了5座。墓葬均為土坑豎穴,多鋪朱砂、有棺痕,出土了銅器、玉器、漆器、白陶器、印紋釉陶器(或原始青瓷)嵌綠松石工藝品、蚌制工藝品、海貝等大量精美隨葬品。其中不少器種如斗笠狀白陶器、鳥首玉飾、大型嵌綠松石器、由上百件齒輪狀有孔蚌片組成的飾品等前所未見。

                              成組貴族墓發現于宮殿區,在以往的考古發掘中尚屬罕見,在二里頭遺址則屬首次發現,這對判明3號基址的性質及二里頭文化葬俗有重要意義。


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