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                            承德避暑山莊介紹

                              避暑山莊又名承德離宮或熱河行宮,位于河北省承德市中心北部,是清代皇帝夏天避暑和處理政務的場所。避暑山莊位于承德市中心區以北,武烈河西岸一帶狹長的谷地上,距離北京 230公里。它始建于1703年,歷經清朝三代皇帝:康熙、雍正、乾隆,耗時約90年建成。 與北京紫禁城相比,避暑山莊以樸素淡雅的山村野趣為格調,取自然山水之本色,吸收江南塞北之風光,成為中國現存占地最大的古代帝王宮苑。
                              
                               當年康熙皇帝在北巡途中,發現承德這片地方地勢良好,氣候宜人,風景優美,又直達清王朝的發祥地--北方,是滿清皇帝家鄉的門戶,還可俯視關內,外控蒙古各部,于是選定在這里建行宮。康熙四十二年(1703年)開始在此大興土木,疏浚湖泊,修路造宮,至康熙五十二年(1713年)建成36景,并建好山莊的圍墻。雍正朝代暫停修建。干隆六年(1741年)到干隆五十七年(1792年)又繼續修建直至完工,建成的避暑山莊新增加干隆36景和山莊外的外八廟,形成界墻內約占地564公頃,其規模壯觀,是別具一格的皇家園林,為后人留下了珍貴的古代園林建筑杰作。

                              避暑山莊分宮殿區、湖泊區、平原區、山巒區四大部分。宮殿區位于湖泊南岸,地形平坦,是皇帝處理朝政、舉行慶典和生活起居的地方,占地 10萬平方米,由正宮、松鶴齋、萬壑松風和東宮四組建筑組成。湖泊區在宮殿區的北面,湖泊面積包括州島約占43公頃,有8個小島嶼,將湖面分割成大小不同的區域,層次分明,洲島錯落,碧波蕩漾,富有江南魚米之鄉的特色。東北角有清泉,即著名的熱河泉。平原區在湖區北面的山腳下,地勢開闊,有萬樹園和試馬埭,是一片碧草茵茵,林木茂盛,茫茫草原風光。山巒區在山莊的西北部,面積約占全園的五分之四,這里山巒起伏,溝壑縱橫,眾多樓堂殿閣、寺廟點綴其間。整個山莊東南多水,西北多山,是中國自然地貌的縮影。

                              平原區西部綠草如茵,一派蒙古草原風光 ; 東部古木參天,具有大興安嶺莽莽森林景象。 在避暑山莊東面和北面的山麓,分布著宏偉壯觀的寺廟群,這就是外八廟,其名稱分別為: 溥仁寺、溥善寺(已毀)、普樂寺、安遠廟、普寧寺、須彌福寺之廟、普陀宗乘之廟、殊像寺。外八廟以漢式宮殿建筑為基調,吸收了蒙、藏、維等民族建筑藝術特征,創造了中國的多樣統一的寺廟建筑風格。

                              山莊整體布局巧用地形,因山就勢,分區明確,景色豐富,與其它園林相比,有其獨特的風格。山莊宮殿區布局嚴謹,建筑樸素,苑景區自然野趣,宮殿與天然景觀和諧地融為一體,達到了回歸自然的境界。山莊融南北建筑藝術精華,園內建筑規模不大,殿宇和圍墻多采用青磚灰瓦、原木本色,淡雅莊重,簡樸適度,與京城的故宮,黃瓦紅墻,描金彩繪,堂皇耀目呈明顯對照。山莊的建筑既具有南方園林的風格、結構和工程做法,又多沿襲北方常用的手法,成為南北建筑藝術完美結合的典范。避暑山莊不同于其它的皇家園林,它繼承和發展了中國古典園林“以人為之美入自然,符合自然而又超越自然”的傳統造園思想,按照地形地貌特征進行選址和總體設計,完全借助于自然地勢,因山就水,順其自然,同時融南北造園藝術的精華于一身。它是中國園林史上一個輝煌的里程碑,是中國古典園林藝術的杰作,享有“中國地理形貌之縮影”和“中國古典園林之最高范例”的盛譽。

                              避暑山莊之外,半環于山莊的是雄偉的寺廟群,如眾星捧月,環繞山莊,它象徵民族團結和中央集權。承德“外八廟”分布在避暑山莊東北面山麓的臺地上,面積達 40多萬平方米,原有寺廟十一座,現存的有普陀宗乘之廟、須彌福壽之廟、普樂寺、普寧寺、安遠廟、溥仁寺、殊像寺。這些廟宇金碧輝煌,宏偉壯觀。<

                              承德避暑山莊和周圍寺廟(英文名稱 : The Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde),于1994年根據文化遺產遴選標準C(II)(IV)被列入《世界遺產名錄》(編號: 200-011)。

                              世界遺產委員會評價:承德避暑山莊,是清王朝的夏季行宮,位于河北省境內,修建于公元 1703年到1792年。它是由眾多的宮殿以及其它處理政務、舉行儀式的建筑構成的一個龐大的建筑群。建筑風格各異的廟宇和皇家園林同周圍的湖泊、牧場和森林巧妙地融為一體。避暑山莊不僅具有極高的美學研究價值,而且還保留著中國封建社會發展末期的罕見的歷史遺跡。


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