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                            中國古琴 傳統文化之瑰寶

                                古琴是中華民族最早的彈弦樂器,是中華傳統文化之瑰寶。她以其歷史久遠,文獻瀚浩、內涵豐富和影響深遠為世人所珍視。湖北曾侯乙墓出土的實物距今有二千四百余年,唐宋以來歷代都有古琴精品傳世。存見南北朝至清代的琴譜百余種,琴曲達三千首,還有大量關于琴家、琴論、琴制、琴藝的文獻,遺存之豐碩堪為中國樂器之最。古時,琴、棋、書、畫并稱,用以概括中華民族的傳統文化。歷代涌現出許多著名演奏家,他們是歷史文化名人,代代傳頌至今。隋唐時期古琴還傳入東亞諸國,并為這些國家的傳統文化所汲取和傳承。近代又伴隨著華人的足跡遍布世界各地,成為西方人心目中東方文化的象征。
                                有關古琴的記載最早見于《詩經》、《尚書》等文獻。《尚書》載:“舜彈五弦之琴,歌南國之詩,而天下治。”可知琴最初為五弦,周代時已有七弦。東漢應劭《風俗通》:“七弦者,法七星也,大弦為君,小弦為臣,文王、武王加二弦,以合君臣之恩。”三國時期,古琴七弦、十三徽的型制已基本穩定,一直流傳沿續到現在。

                                古琴的演奏形式主要有琴歌、獨奏兩種。根據文獻記載,先秦時期,古琴除用于郊廟祭祀、朝會、典禮等雅樂外,主要在士以上的階層中流行,秦以后盛興于民間。關于以琴為聲樂伴奏的形式,早在《尚書》中,已有"搏拊琴瑟以詠"的記載。周代,多用琴瑟伴奏歌唱,叫"弦歌",即唐宋以來所謂的琴歌。從漢代蔡邕所著《琴操》中,有歌詩五曲,即周之弦歌,其中的"十二操"、"九引"以及"河間雜歌",都是援琴而歌的。

                                春秋戰國時期,古琴的獨奏音樂已具有一定的藝術表現能力,如伯牙彈琴子期善聽的傳說。當時有名的琴師有衛國的師涓,晉國的師曠,鄭國的師文,魯國的師囊等;著名的琴曲如《高山》、《流水》、《雉朝飛》、《陽春》、《白雪》等,均已載人史冊。

                                建國后,古琴音樂得到政府的重視和搶救,調查、收集、整理了流失于民間中的各種傳譜,并錄制了一批音響;發掘一批失傳的琴曲,如《廣陵散》、《幽蘭》等;培養了一批古琴音樂人材,為今后古琴音樂的整理、研究、發展開辟了新的前景。著名的琴家有管平湖、吳景略、龍琴舫、查阜西、張子謙、夏一峰等。


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