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                            山東曲藝之鼓

                            山東曲藝歷史悠久,遺產豐富,享有書山曲海之美譽,為全國民間說唱藝術較為興盛發達的省份之一。在山東省省級非物質文化遺產中,曲藝中的鼓就有山東大鼓、膠東大鼓、山東八角鼓、山東漁鼓、東路大鼓、西河大鼓(含陽信木板大鼓)等。

                            山東大鼓是北方大鼓之鼻祖, 相傳形成于明代末期,已有350多年的歷史。流傳于以菏澤為中心的廣大魯、蘇、豫地區。原稱犁鏵大鼓,因其伴奏樂器為犁鏵碎片而得名,自《老殘游記》之后,始諧音美其稱為“梨花大鼓”。后逐漸發展為有板式變化的成套唱腔、敲擊矮腳鼓和特制的半月形梨花片并有三弦伴奏的說唱表演形式。梨花大鼓風格樸實,富有濃郁的鄉土氣息;曲調高昂,說、唱、道、白兼備;敘事山東大鼓抒情交融。

                            膠東大鼓是流行于膠東半島上的一種鼓曲形式,該曲種產生已有250年左右的歷史。開始時為盲人所創,早年的演唱者都是說書兼算卦,到了清嘉慶之后,才結合“靠山調”慢慢發展成早期大鼓的曲調,后吸收東路大鼓、萊陽彈詞、茂腔等唱腔曲調,得到新的發展。膠東大鼓在膠東民間民俗文化中占有重要地位,是豐富多彩的膠東民間民俗文化的一個縮影。

                            山東八角鼓原名八旗鼓,因伴奏樂器八角鼓而得名,流行于聊城、濟寧、臨沂、博山、青州、膠州、萊陽等地,均稱八旗鼓或八角鼓,唯萊陽改名彈詞。上世紀五十年代初,挖掘流傳聊城一帶的八角鼓音樂時,始定名為“聊城八角鼓”,爾后各地陸續挖掘,因各地所唱曲牌、曲目基本相同,小有變異,故統稱之日“山東八角鼓”。

                            山東漁鼓系源于唐代道曲的一種民間說唱藝術形式。南宋始用漁鼓簡板伴奏,元明以來流傳很廣,與各流行地區民間俗曲相結合形成各自不同的曲調。演唱內容以歷史傳統與民間故事為主,宗教色彩日漸淡薄。因主要伴奏樂器而得名“漁鼓”,流行于山東境內的統稱“山東漁鼓”。漁鼓演出形式簡單,用漁鼓、簡板伴奏,唱白自由,語言通俗,曲調適于述說,幾近吟誦。

                            東路大鼓亦名“老東口”,在山東東部農村小唱基礎上,受茂腔等地方戲曲影響,逐漸演化而成。清末,因其久已流行的梨花大鼓相對稱,而叫做“東路大鼓”。其演唱形式一般采用大鼓和鋼板伴奏,演唱者邊擊鼓、板,邊說唱,唱詞為韻文,兼以散文念白,繪聲繪色,引人入勝。東路大鼓的曲調剛健有力、活潑流暢,語言通俗質樸,深受群眾喜愛,故當時以說書為業的民間藝人數不勝數。

                            西河大鼓的前身,是清代中葉流行于河北、山東等地的弦子書和木板大鼓。以說唱中、長篇書目為主,也有少數演員專工短篇唱段。西河大鼓有弦子書和木板大鼓兩種演出形式。弦子書以小三弦伴奏,演員自彈自唱;木板大鼓演員自擊木板和書鼓說唱。后來,這兩種曲藝藝人拼檔演出,形成以鼓、 板、小三弦伴奏的形式。


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