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                            京劇中凈行是如何分類的?

                              京劇凈行中分為正凈(重唱功 ,稱銅錘 、黑頭)、架子花(重工架)、武二花、摔打花、油花(一稱毛凈)。


                              正凈一般是以唱工為主,所以又叫唱工花臉。唱工花臉還有兩個專門名稱:銅錘和黑頭。這兩個名稱與兩個人物有關╠╠徐彥昭和包公。京戲《二進宮》里的花臉徐彥昭,他是典型的唱工花臉,手里拿一柄銅錘,所以人們就把銅錘作為唱工花臉的代名詞了。另外,京劇里的包公戲都以唱工繁重見長,例如《打龍袍》、《赤桑鎮》、《鍘美案》等戲。而且戲里的包公都勾著黑臉,因此黑頭也就成為唱工花臉的代名詞了。另外,像《草橋關》里的銚期、《白良關》里的尉遲恭、《牧虎關》里的高旺,還有《大回朝》里的聞太師等,都是以唱工為主的花臉戲,都屬于所謂正凈的范疇。   副凈是架子花臉和二花臉的統稱。架子花臉的范圍特別廣,以工架、念白、表演為主。當然也得有點唱工基礎。比如《連環套·盜御馬》,前半截《連環套·坐寨》是重唱工的,《盜御馬》是工架與唱工并重的,最后《拜山》一折又是念白與工架并重的。所以演架子花的人,既要有很深厚的武功底子,又要善于表演,善于念白,還要能唱,并要有優美的工架。架子花臉的劇目相當多,像張飛的戲、牛皋的戲、李逵的戲、焦贊的戲、絕大多數的曹操戲,還有像《失街亭·空城計·斬馬謖》里的馬謖、《取洛陽》里的馬武、《十三妹》里的鄧九公、《審潘洪》里的潘洪、《李慧娘》里的賈似道、《群英會》里的黃蓋、《法門寺》里的劉瑾、《連環套·盜御馬》里的竇爾敦等等都是屬于架子花臉的范疇。特別值得說一下的是曹操戲,化妝勾水白臉的,不用一般的油彩,而是用水粉加上一些黑筆道勾成水白臉的,這就是所謂奸臣臉,以曹操為最典型。實際上不止曹操一個人,很多歷史上的奸臣,像趙高、董卓、賈似道、嚴嵩等,都是勾的水白臉。所以水白臉就形成了一種典型,只要勾這種臉,就一定是壞人。這樣的角色都由架子花臉來應工。二花臉的戲比較少。雖然也勾同樣的臉譜,可是表演風格有時近似丑角,有時候還扮演一些詼諧狡猾的角色。例如《法門寺》里的劉彪、《武松打店》里的大解差這類的角色。


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