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                            京劇中丑行是如何分類的?

                              京劇丑行中分為文丑(分方巾丑、袍帶丑、老丑、茶衣丑,并兼演彩旦、婆子)、武丑(又稱開口跳)等。


                              丑行都是在鼻梁上用白粉涂一個粉塊。這白粉的塊,也有幾種不同的形狀,有的是方的,有的是元寶形或是倒元寶形,叫作腰子形,還有的是棗核形,根據不同的人物,畫不同形狀和大小的白粉塊。丑行中,有些是扮演陰險狡猾、貪鄙自私的角色,有的是扮演機警、伶俐、幽默的角色。在傳統戲里,一般社會地位不高的勞動人民,像漁夫,農夫,樵夫,酒保,打更的,守夜的,差役,書童,乞丐等等,大部分都由丑角來扮演。而從性格上來說,這些人多半都是很滑稽,很活潑,很樂觀的人。比如《女起解》里的崇公道。就是很忠厚、善良,有正義感的老差役;《秋江》里的老船夫,就是助人為樂的,很有風趣的老人;《三岔口》里的劉利華,是個嫉惡如仇,見義勇為的小店主;《擋馬》里的焦光普,則是個忍辱負重,勇敢機智的愛國志士,這些都是由丑角來應的。


                              方巾丑,頭上戴著一頂方巾,身上穿著褶子,有的手里還拿著把扇子,邁著四方步,舉止緩慢文雅。一般是一些有文化的人,這些角色表面上文質彬彬,可是帶點迂腐的酸氣,例如《群英會》里的蔣干、《烏龍院》里的張文遠等。第二種是袍帶丑,指扮演的是官階比較低的小官,戴著紗帽,穿著官衣,例如《審頭刺湯》里的湯勤、《六月雪》里的山陽縣知縣等,都屬于這類角色。

                              茶衣丑。茶衣就是短的藍布褂子,術語叫茶衣。茶衣丑扮演的都是勞動人民角色,例如《秋江》里的艄翁、《蘆中人》里的漁翁、《問樵鬧府》里的樵夫、《駱馬湖》里的酒保、《打櫻桃》里的秋水等。

                              武丑要善于念白和武功。這樣的角色要求武功精湛,動作輕靈敏捷。性格詼諧、機智。像《連環套》里的朱光祖、《雁翎甲》里的時遷。


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