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                            戲劇名劇--趙氏孤兒

                              故事見《左傳》、《史記·趙世家》,元紀君祥著有《趙氏孤兒大報仇》,明徐元久創作《八義記》傳奇,清代被改為梆子劇目,現代最著名的是秦腔演出本,作者是馬健翎。

                              故事大意:春秋晉靈公時,趙盾遭大將軍屠岸賈的誣害,全家 300余口被殘殺,只有一個剛出生的嬰兒為門客程嬰救出。此后,在驚心動魄的搜孤救孤過程中,先后有韓厥、卜鳳、公孫杵臼、金剛(程嬰之子)獻出了生命,連同先前為救趙盾而死的鉅麋和秦繼明、替趙朔赴死的周堅、以及程嬰(一說是林輒),被后人尊稱為“八義”。20年后,孤兒趙武成人,程嬰將趙家冤案始末繪成圖卷對他講說,孤兒決意擒殺屠岸賈報仇。元刊本以此作結,明刊本又繼寫晉景公處死屠岸賈為趙家申冤一折。全劇慷慨悲歌,氣氛熾烈,悲壯感人。歌頌了為正義事業前仆后繼、自我犧牲的情懷。

                              清代以來各種地方戲均改編演出,以京劇、秦腔影響較大。秦腔《趙氏孤兒》由陜西省戲曲研究院秦腔二團于1958年首演,導演是史雷、韓盛岫、蘇育民,劉易平扮演程嬰,閻更平扮演趙盾,馬藍魚、霍慧君扮演卜鳳,李應貞扮演公主,許天成扮演趙武。該劇曾于1959年參加建國十周年和三十周年的獻禮演出,獲譽極高。但由于劇種本身觀眾群的局限,秦腔《趙氏孤兒》在全國范圍的影響反而不及其后于1960年由北京京劇團排演的王雁的改編本。看一看京劇的陣容,言之鼎盛絕不過分:馬連良扮演程嬰,裘盛戎扮演魏絳,譚富英扮演趙盾,張君秋扮演莊姬公主,演出后,聲名遐邇是自然的。

                              京劇傳統劇目中的《搜孤救孤》敷衍的是其中有關程嬰和公孫杵臼聯合救孤的一段。
                              另外,這個故事于1735年被譯成法文本,德國詩人歌德改編為《埃爾佩諾》,意大利作家p.梅塔斯塔齊奧改編時題為《中國英雄》。
                              無論從哪個角度講,馬、譚、張、裘四大牌合力打造的京劇版《趙氏孤兒》都堪稱絕世精品。尤其是“打嬰”和“觀畫”兩折戲。據說原作本無“打嬰”一折,是魏絳的扮演者裘盛戎建議加上去的,這才有了那段精美絕倫的“漢調二黃”。每想至此我都要對目前的京劇創作嘆問一聲:我們還有因人設戲的新劇目嗎?《彈劍記》算一出,可惜,總共演出了幾場?有10場嗎?算上在香港臺灣的。


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