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                            開平碉樓與村落

                                開平碉樓的歷史最早可上溯到明末清初,到20世紀20-30年代,隨著大量華僑回鄉置業,開平碉樓出現了一個前所未有的鼎盛時期。碉樓最多的時候有3000多座,至今仍完好保存了1833座。2007年6月,第31屆世界遺產大會通過中國“開平碉樓與村落”入選世界文化遺產名錄。

                               新華社廣州2007年6月28日電(記者 賴少芬)正在新西蘭舉行的第31屆聯合國世界遺產大會28日審議通過,將中國的“開平碉樓與村落”列入《世界遺產名錄》。中國由此誕生了首個華僑文化的世界遺產項目。同時,它也是國際“移民文化”的第一個世界遺產項目。

                                位于廣東西南部的開平市有人口68萬人,而散居世界各地來自開平的華僑則達75萬人。開平是中國著名僑鄉,也是聞名遐邇的碉樓之鄉。

                                19世紀末,美國、加拿大等國家的排華政策迫使眾多開平華僑紛紛回鄉,在20世紀二三十年代形成了僑房建設的高峰期。為了防御當時的土匪,開平的華僑和鄉親將碉樓建成了一種集防衛、居住和中西建筑藝術于一體的特殊建筑。

                                “華僑華人不僅是國際移民,也是中華文化的傳播者。‘開平碉樓與村落’體現了華僑文化的特點,也是國際移民文化的一個遺產。”開平碉樓與村落“申遺”首席專家、五邑大學教授張國雄說。

                                專家認為,“開平碉樓與村落”反映了一個跨國、跨地域的遷移所帶來的文化交流,這種遺產項目在現有世界遺產中還很缺乏。

                                開平的華僑旅居歐美各國,因此這里的碉樓都帶著濃郁的歐美風情,現存的1833座碉樓既有中國傳統的硬山頂式、懸山頂式,也有國外不同時期的建筑風格,如希臘式、羅馬式、拜占庭式、巴洛克式,還有中西結合的庭院式、別墅式等。

                                張國雄說,“開平碉樓與村落”的背后,蘊涵著豐富的華僑歷史信息,記載著中國近代社會轉型中當地華僑在特定的歷史時期內,對其居住國、家鄉乃至整個中國社會的貢獻。

                                有“開平碉樓第一樓”之稱的瑞石樓是開平建筑藝術價值最高的碉樓,整體造型帶著濃厚的西方建筑風格,包括古羅馬的券拱、愛奧立克風格的柱廊,巴洛克風格的山花等,其中又注入了中國建筑文化元素,“瑞石樓”三字剛勁雋秀,很多樓層還雕刻著“富貴吉祥”、“世界大同”等中國傳統語匯。

                                此外,開平碉樓在建筑材料上大量采用鋼筋混凝土,在中國廣大城鄉仍然處于封閉或半開放狀態的19世紀末20世紀初是獨一無二的。

                                張國雄說,中國不少沿海城市都有中西合壁的近代建筑,但它們大都是殖民地時期由外國人主持建造的。而開平碉樓卻是中國鄉村民眾主動學習、吸收西方建筑文化并與本土文化融合的產物。

                                “回鄉置業的華僑們不僅帶回了外國的建筑文化,還帶回西方的制度文化、觀念文化和其他器物文化,將這些西方文化和本土文化完美地融合在了一起。”他說。


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