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                            福建土樓

                               2008年7月,中國“福建土樓”在加拿大魁北克城舉行的第32屆世界遺產大會上,被正式列入《世界遺產名錄》。福建土樓產生于宋元,成熟于明末、清代和民國時期。世遺土樓中最古老和最年輕的均在初溪土樓群,直徑66米的集慶樓已屆600“高齡”,直徑31米的善慶樓則僅有30年歷史。

                            福建永定縣下洋鎮初溪土樓群

                            福建永定縣湖坑鎮洪坑土樓――振成樓

                                北京時間7日晨,在加拿大魁北克城舉行的第32屆世界遺產大會上,46座福建土樓被正式列入《世界遺產名錄》。

                                聽到這盼望已久的消息,土樓導游林日耕黝黑的臉上綻開了笑容。對他而言,這意味著更多的游客會來,更多的錢可賺,但絕不止這些。“我為我的祖上驕傲,”他說,住在現存3000多座福建土樓里的居民將與他共享這份驕傲。

                                成為世界文化遺產的46座福建土樓由六群四樓組成,即永定縣初溪、洪坑、高北土樓群及衍香樓、振福樓、南靖縣田螺坑、河坑土樓群及懷遠樓、和貴樓、華安縣大地土樓群。這些土樓或方或圓,以圓為主,如珍珠般灑落在閩西南的綠水青山間。

                                “福建土樓是世界上獨一無二的山區大型夯土民居建筑,以其神奇的聚落環境、特有的空間形式、絕妙的防衛系統、巧奪天工的建造技術和深邃的土樓文化,令世界矚目。”福建省建筑設計院首席總建筑師黃漢民說。

                                福建土樓產生于宋元,成熟于明末、清代和民國時期。世遺土樓中最古老和最年輕的均在初溪土樓群,直徑66米的集慶樓已屆600“高齡”,直徑31米的善慶樓則僅有30年歷史。

                                福建土樓的形成與歷史上中原漢人幾次著名大遷徙相關。西晉永嘉年間即公元4世紀,北方戰禍頻仍,天災肆虐,當地民眾大舉南遷,拉開了千百年來中原漢人不斷舉族遷徙入閩的序幕。進入閩南的中原移民與當地居民相互融合,形成了以閩南話為特征的福佬民系;輾轉遷徙后經江西贛州進入閩西山區的中原漢人則構成福建另一支重要民系——以客家話為特征的客家民系。

                                福建土樓所在的閩西南山區,正是福佬與客家民系的交匯處,地勢險峻,人煙稀少,一度野獸出沒,盜匪四起。聚族而居既是根深蒂固的中原儒家傳統觀念要求,更是聚集力量、共御外敵的現實需要使然。集居住和防御功能于一體的土樓就這樣應運而生了。這些獨一無二的山區民居建筑,將源遠流長的生土夯筑技術推向極致。

                                “土樓建造最緊要處是基礎、夯實和整墻。”出生在初溪土樓的國家非物質文化遺產客家土樓營造技藝傳承人徐松生說,土樓以石為基,以生土為主要原料,分層交錯夯筑,配上竹木作墻骨牽拉,丁字交叉處則用木定型錨固。

                                史料記載,一次震級測定為七級的地震使永定環極樓墻體震裂20厘米,然而它卻能自行復合。這足見土樓的堅韌。

                                “土樓是原始的生態型的綠色建筑。”黃漢民說,土樓冬暖夏涼,就地取材,循環利用,以最原始的形態全面體現了人們今天所追求的綠色建筑的“最新理念與最高境界”,“建造新一代綠色土樓,應該引起高度重視。”

                                聚族而居的福建土樓是個豐富多彩的小社會。永定承啟樓擁有384個房間,最多時曾住過800多人。“土樓對建設和諧社會最有用。”徐松生說,住在土樓里,有事情大家會互相幫忙,鄰里和睦。“孩子孝不孝,會有口碑,好的學習,壞的批評,起到教育約束的作用。”

                                福建土樓多具完善的防御功能。其外墻厚一至二米,一二層不開窗,僅有的堅固大門一關,土樓便成堅不可摧的堡壘。為防火攻,門上設有漏水漏沙裝置,緊急時樓內居民還可從地下暗道逃出。如今,土樓早已不再是堡壘,但那些完備而精致的防御設施,仍讓人們拍案驚奇。

                                厚重的福建土樓,承載著厚重的傳統文化。發人深省的楹聯匾額,與樓共存的私塾學堂,教化育人的壁畫彩繪,無不激蕩著歷朝歷代土樓人家“修身齊家”的理想和“止于至善”的追求。振成樓有副名聯備受稱道:振作哪有閑時,少時壯時老年時,時時須努力;成名原非易事,家事國事天下事,事事要關心。

                                “我與別人不一樣的地方在于深挖土樓的文化內涵。”林日耕說,“振成樓建筑很美,可用眼觀察,但振成樓的文化更美,要用心體會。”

                                藏在深山里的土樓“天生麗質難自棄”。上世紀80年代初,一些專家和游客不惜跋山涉水來看土樓,讓生于斯、長于斯的林日耕驚訝不已。他秉持“來者就是客”的祖訓,帶客人參觀,請他們吃客家菜、喝客家酒。

                                越來越多的游客涌向土樓,林日耕愈加認識到土樓的珍貴。他只念過小學,但他秉承土樓人家的好學傳統,不斷向專家和游客學習,逐漸形成了編印成冊、備受歡迎的導游詞--《振成樓探秘》。如今,他成了“行走的土樓”,每走一處,都能講出一段掌故,一段歷史,一段哲理。

                                擁有四分之一振成樓的林日耕還在樓內開小商店、小飯館和小旅館,見過來自30多個國家的游客。如今,振成樓成為世界文化遺產,他又有了新打算。“我要讓女兒去學英語,這樣才能更好地介紹土樓文化。”


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