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                            中國十大古曲

                            高山流水 (古箏曲) 
                                    傳說先秦的琴師伯牙一次在荒山野地彈琴,樵夫鐘子期竟能領會這是描繪“巍巍乎志在高山”和“洋洋乎志在流水”。 伯牙驚道:“善哉,子之心與吾心同。”子期死后,伯牙痛失知音,摔琴絕弦,終生不操,故有高山流水之曲。
                            廣陵散 (古琴曲) 
                                    又名《廣陵止息》。漢魏時期相和楚調但曲之一。積康因反對司馬氏專政而遭殺害,臨刑前從容彈奏此曲以寄托,現存琴譜最早見于《神奇秘譜》。 
                                    又一說:原是東漢末年流行于廣陵地區(即今安徽壽縣境內)的民間樂曲。曾用琴、箏、笙、筑等樂器演奏,現僅存古琴曲,以《神奇秘譜》載錄最早。早期并無內容記載,現多數琴家按照聶政刺韓王的民間傳說來解釋(與正史有出入)。據《琴操》中所載:聶政,戰國時期韓國人,其父為韓王鑄劍誤期而被殺。為報父仇,上泰山刻苦學琴十年之后,漆身吞炭,改變音容,返回韓國,在離宮不遠處彈琴,高超的琴藝使行人止步,牛馬停蹄。韓王得悉后,召進宮內演奏,聶政趁其不備,從琴腹抽出匕首刺死韓王。為免連累母親,便毀容自盡。 
                                    后人曾為古琴曲《廣陵散》所加分段標題,有的以與故事相應的情節取名,樂曲所表現的情緒,與這個悲壯的傳說也確有不少相通之處。《神奇秘譜》所載《廣陵散》,分開指(一段)、小序(三段)、大序(五段)、正聲(十八段)、亂聲(十段)、后序(八段)共四十五段。此曲早已絕響,解放后不少琴家才將它譯奏出來。樂曲定弦特別,第二弦與第一弦同音,使低音旋律同時可在這兩條弦上奏出,取得強烈的音響效果。
                            平沙落雁 (古琴曲) 
                                    又名《雁落平沙》或《平沙》。作者傳有唐代陳子昂、宋代毛敏仲、明代朱權等,眾說不一。此曲琴譜最初載于明末《古音正宗》(1634年)。問世以后,深受琴家喜愛,不僅廣為流傳,而且經過加工發展,形成段數、定弦、調式、意境等方面不盡相同,又各具特色的多種版本,是傳譜最多的琴曲之一。 
                                    對于曲情的理解,有“取清秋寥落之意,鴻雁飛鳴”來描寫秋天景物的;有“取秋高氣爽,風靜沙平,云程萬里,天際飛鳴,借鵠鴻之遠志,寫逸士之心胸”的;也有從鴻雁“回翔瞻顧之情,上下頡頏之態,翔而后集之象,驚而復起之神”,“既落則沙平水遠,意適心閑,朋侶無猜,雌雄有敘”,發出世事險惡,不如雁性的感慨的。現在流傳的多數是七段,主要的音調和音樂形象大致相同,旋律起而又伏,綿延不斷,優美動聽;基調靜美,但靜中有動。諸城派的《平沙》,增加了一段在固定音型陪襯下用模擬手法表現大雁飛鳴,此呼彼應的情景,形象鮮明生動,別具一格。
                            梅花三弄 (古琴曲) (古箏曲) (洞簫曲) 
                                    此曲系借物詠懷,通過梅花的潔白、芬芳和耐寒等特征,來贊頌具有高尚情操的人,樂曲前半闋奏出了清幽、舒暢的泛音曲調,表現了梅花高潔、安詳的靜態;急促的后半闋,描寫了梅花不屈的動態。前后兩段在音色、曲調和節奏上然不同,有著鮮明的對比。同曲中泛音曲調在不同的徽位上重復了三次,所以稱為”三弄”。
                            十面埋伏 (琵琶曲) 
                                    傳統琵琶曲之一。又名《淮陽平楚》:譜最早見于《華秋頻琵琶譜》(1819)。明王 寶(1598-1662)《四照堂集。湯琵琶傳》中記琵琶家湯應曾奏《楚漢》。“楚漢一曲。當其兩軍決斗是,聲動天地,屋瓦若飛墜,徐而察之,有金聲、鼓聲、金、劍擊聲、人馬群易聲,俄而無聲。久之,有怨而難明者為楚歌聲;凄而壯者為項王悲歌慷慨之聲、別姬聲;陷大澤,有追騎聲;至烏江,有項王自刎聲,余騎蹂踐項王聲。使聞者始而奮,既而悲,終而涕淚之無從也,其成人如此。”所繪之情景、聲色與今之《十面埋伏》甚近似。全曲分十三個段落,都標題可歸三部分: [NextPage]
                            第一部分: 
                                    (1)“列營”全曲序引,表現出征前的金鼓戰號齊鳴,眾人吶喊的激勵場面。音樂有散漸快,調式的復合性及其交替轉換,更使音樂增加不穩定性。
                                    (2)“吹打”。 
                                    (3)“點將”主題呈式,用接連不斷的長輪指手法(但輪一句輪一拂輪)和“扣、抹、彈、抹”組合指法,表現將士威武的氣派。 
                                    (4)“排陣”。 
                                    (5)“走隊”音樂與前有一定的對比,用“遮、分”和“遮、劃”手法進一步展現軍隊勇武矯健的雄姿。
                            第二部分: 
                                    (6)埋伏 表現決戰前夕夜晚,漢軍在該下伏兵,氣象寧靜而又緊張,為下面兩段作鋪墊。 
                                    (7)雞鳴山小戰 楚漢兩軍短兵相接,刀槍相擊,氣息急促,音樂初步展開。 
                                    (8)九里山大戰 描繪兩軍激戰的生死搏殺場面。馬蹄聲、刀戈相擊聲、吶喊聲交織起伏,震撼人心。先用“劃、排、彈、排”交替彈法,后用拼雙弦、推拉等技法,將音樂推向高潮。
                            第三部分: 
                                    (9)項王敗陣。 
                                    (10)烏江自刎 先是節奏零落的同音反復和節奏緊密的馬蹄聲交替,表現了突圍落荒而走的項王和漢軍緊追不舍的場面;然后是一段悲壯的旋律,表現項羽自刎;最后四弦一“劃”后急“伏”(又稱“煞住”),音樂嘎然而止。
                            原曲還有: 
                                    (11)眾串凱。 
                                    (12)諸將爭功。 
                                    (13)得勝回營。衛仲樂先生的演奏指“自刎”止,后三段刪去不奏。今日諸家大多承用此法。 
                                    整曲來看,又有“起、承、轉、合的”布局性質。第一部分含五段為“起、承部”,第二部分含三段為“轉”部,第三部分含二段為“合”部。
                            夕陽蕭鼓 (琵琶曲) 
                                    原來是一首琵琶獨奏曲,名《夕陽簫鼓》(又名《夕陽簫歌》,亦名《潯陽琵琶》、《潯陽夜月》、《潯陽曲》)。約在1925年,此曲首次被改編成民族管弦樂曲。解放后,又經多人整理改編,更臻完善,深為國內外聽眾珍愛。樂曲通過委婉質樸的旋律,流暢多變的節奏,巧妙細膩的配器,絲絲入扣的演奏,形象地描繪了月夜春江的迷人景色,盡情贊頌江南水鄉的風姿異態。全曲就象一幅工筆精細、色彩柔和、清麗淡雅的山水長卷,引人入勝。 
                                    第一段“江樓鐘鼓”描繪出夕陽映江面,熏風拂漣漪的景色。然后,樂隊齊奏出優美如歌的主搖曳,水中倒影,層迭恍惚。進入第五段“水深云際”,那種“江天一色無纖塵,皎皎空中孤月輪”的壯闊景色油然而生。樂隊齊奏,速度加快,猶如白帆點點,遙聞漁歌,由遠而近,逐歌四起的畫面。第七段,琵琶用掃輪彈奏,恰似漁舟破水,掀起波濤拍岸的動態。全曲的高潮是第九段“G乃歸舟”,表現歸舟破水,浪花飛濺,櫓聲“G乃”,由遠而近的意境。歸舟遠去,萬籟皆寂,春江顯得更加寧靜,全曲在悠揚徐緩的旋律中結束,使人回味無窮。 [NextPage]
                            漁樵問答 (琴簫曲) 
                                    此曲在歷代傳譜中有三十多種版本,有的還付歌詞。樂曲通過漁樵在青山綠水間自得其樂的情趣,表達出對追逐名利者的鄙棄。樂曲采用漁者和樵者對話的方式,以上升的曲調表示問句,下降的曲調表示答句。旋律飄逸瀟灑,表現出漁樵悠然自得的神態。正如《琴學初津》中所述:“《漁樵問答》曲意深長,神情灑脫,而山之巍巍,水之洋洋,斧伐之丁丁,櫓歌之矣乃,隱隱現于指下。迨至問答之段,令人有山林之想。”
                            胡笳十八拍 (古琴曲) 
                                    漢末,著名文學家、古琴家蔡邕的女兒蔡琰(文姬),在兵亂中被匈奴所獲,留居南匈奴與左賢王為妃,生了兩個孩子。后來曹操派人把她接回,她寫了一首長詩,敘唱她悲苦的身世和思鄉別子的情懷。 
                                    全詩共十八段,譜作成套歌曲十八首。據郭沫若說,突厥語稱“首”為“拍”,十八拍即十八首之意。又因該詩是她有感于胡笳的哀聲而作,所以名為《胡笳十八拍》或《胡笳鳴》。原是琴歌,但魏晉以后逐漸演變成為兩種不同的器樂曲,稱《大胡笳鳴》、《小胡笳鳴》。前者即為《胡笳十八拍》的嫡傳。 
                                    唐代琴家黃庭蘭以擅彈此曲著稱。李頎有《聽董大彈胡笳》詩:“蔡女昔造胡笳聲,一彈一十有八拍,胡人落淚沾邊草,漢使斷腸對客歸。”就是對該曲內容的概括。現存的曲譜最早見于1425年刊行的《神奇秘譜》本,稱“大、小 胡笳”,都是無歌詞的器樂曲。可唱的琴歌《胡笳十八拍》,初見于明萬歷三十九年(公元1611年)孫丕顯所刻的《琴適》中,也就是現在最流行的譜本,其歌詞即文姬所作的“我生之初尚無為……”。音樂基本上用一字對一音的手法,帶有早期歌曲的特點。從第一拍到第九拍,以及第十二、十三兩拍,都有一個相同的尾聲,有受漢代相和大曲影響的痕跡。全曲為六聲羽調,常用升高的徵音(升5)和模進中形成的高音(升1)作為調式外音。情緒悲涼激動,感人頗深。
                            漢宮秋月 (二胡曲) 
                                    此曲有兩種較為流行的演奏形式,一為箏曲,另為二胡曲。據載,二胡曲是劉天華先生所傳。本曲意在表現古代受壓迫宮女的幽怨、悲泣情緒,喚起人們對她們不幸遭遇的同情。箏曲演奏運用了吟、滑、按等諸多技巧,風格純樸古雅,是一首有代表性的山東箏曲;二胡曲則速度緩慢,用弓細膩多變,旋律經常出現短促的休止和頓音,音樂時斷時續,加之各種復雜技法的運用,表現了宮女哀怨、悲愁的情緒,具有很深的藝術感染力。題,樂句間同音相連,委婉平靜;大鼓輕聲滾奏,意境深遠(片段1)。
                            第二、三段,表現了“月上東山”(片段2)和“風回曲水”的意境。
                            陽春白雪 (琵琶曲) 
                                    琵琶獨奏曲,亦名《陽春白雪》,是一首廣泛流傳的優秀琵琶古曲。它以清新流暢的旋律、活潑輕快的節奏,生動表現了冬去春來,大地復蘇,萬物向榮,生機勃勃的初春景象。 
                                    歷來有“大陽春”和“小陽春”(又名“快板陽春”)兩種不同版本。前者指李芳園、沈浩初整理的十段與十二段的樂譜;后者是近代琵琶家汪昱庭(1872 - 1951)所傳,全曲只有七個樂段,可劃分為起承轉合四個部分,是一首具有循環因素的變奏體的樂曲。“起”部標題名為“獨占鰲頭”,使用加花、“隔凡”以及結構上的擴充和緊縮等民間常用旋法,使《八板》原型得到變化發展,并以半輪、推拉等演奏技巧潤飾曲調,充滿了生動活潑、明快愉悅的情緒。樂曲開頭的八小節在后面循環再現,是全曲各個部分的“合頭”。“承”部共兩段:“風擺荷花”和“一輪明月”。在八小節“合頭”再現以后,高音區展開的旋律更加花簇,結構也擴大了,情緒比“起”部更為熱烈。“轉”部包括“玉版參禪”、“鐵策板聲”、“道院琴聲”三段,這是一個對比性的段落。 [NextPage]
                                    《八板》變體運用分割和倒裝、變化節奏等方法加以展開,并在第六段中引入了新的音樂材料。在演奏上時而用扳的技法奏出強音;時而用摭分彈出輕盈的曲調,尤其是第六段圍繞徵音彈出的一連串泛音,更如“大珠小珠落玉盤”,晶瑩四射,充滿活力。“合”部標題為“東皋鶴鳴”,再現了第二段,并在尾部作了擴充。通過慢起漸快的速度,連續的十六分音符進行,并在每拍頭上加“劃”,不斷增加音樂的強度,使全曲在強烈的氣氛中結束。 
                             
                             


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