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                            漢族節日—寒食節習俗

                                1、禁煙冷食:寒食節古代也叫“禁煙節”,家家禁止生火,都吃冷食。但因國人追憫先賢之情執著,從東漢到南北朝屢禁屢興,唐代皇家認可并參與。 

                                   2、拜掃祭祖:寒食節掃墓祭祖在南北朝到唐前被視為“野祭”。唐代編入《開元禮》“卷第八十七·王公以下拜掃(寒食拜掃附)”中,成為官方認同并倡導的吉禮之一。后演變為皇家祭陵;官府祭孔廟、祭先賢;百姓上墳等。時一家或一族人同到先祖墳地,致祭、添土、掛紙錢,然后將子推燕、蛇盤兔撒于墳頂滾下,用柳枝或疙針穿起,置于房中高處,意沾先祖德澤。 

                                   3、寒食飲食:寒食食品包括寒食粥、寒食面、寒食漿、青精飯及餳等;寒食供品有面燕、蛇盤兔、棗餅、細稞、神餤等;飲料有春酒、新茶、清泉甘水等數十種之多。其中多數寓意深刻,如祭食蛇盤兔,俗有“蛇盤兔,必定富”之說,意為企盼民富國強;子推燕,取介休方言“念念”不忘介推高風亮節……。 江蘇鎮江有寒食節食具京扛儕"京扛儕".《國民生活歷》說:“京口(鎮江)以其為寒具。臍為六角形,謂京扛儕。” 

                                   4、寒食插柳:柳為寒食節象征之物,原為懷念介之推追求政治清明之意。早在南北朝《荊楚歲時記》就有“江淮間寒食日家家折柳插門”的記載,安徽、蘇州等地還盛行戴芥花,佩麥葉來代替柳枝。據各地史籍記載:“插柳于墳”、“折柳枝標于戶”、“插于檐插柳寢灶間”、“亦戴之頭或系衣帶”、“瓶貯獻于佛神”、“門皆插柳”,故民間有“清明(寒食)不戴柳,紅顏成白首”之說。 

                                   5、寒食踏青:也叫踏春,盛興于唐宋。宋·李之彥《東谷所見》載:“拜掃了事,而后與兄弟、妻子、親戚、契交放情地游覽,盡歡而歸”。明代《帝王景物略》記京效踏青場景為:“歲(寒食)清明日,都人踏青,輿者,騎者,步者,游人以萬計。”可謂盛極。 

                                   6、寒食秋千:秋千原為古代寒食節宮廷女子游樂項目。五代王仁裕《開元天寶遺事》載“天寶宮中至寒食節竟豎秋千,令宮嬪輩戲笑以為宴樂。帝呼為半仙之戲,都中士民因而呼之”,宋代宰相文彥博詩《寒食日過龍門》,詩中描寫為 “橋邊楊柳垂青線,林立秋千掛彩繩。” 

                                   7、寒食蹴球:盛行于唐,宋《文獻通考》載:“蹴球,蓋始于唐。植兩修竹,高數丈,絡網于上,為門以度球,球工分左右朋,以角勝負。”史載:唐德宗、憲宗、穆宗、敬宗都喜蹴球,《州府元龜》載:“唐德宗貞元十二年二月寒食節帝御麒殿之東亭,觀武臣及勛戚子弟會球,兼賜宰臣宴饌。”宋代也有《太祖蹴鞠圖》。 

                                   8、寒食詠詩:寒食節時,文人們或思鄉念親,或借景生情,感慨尤多,靈感頓生,詩興大發,詠者甚多。據查,僅《全唐詩》就有唐玄宗、張說、杜甫、韓愈、柳宗元等名人名家詩詞三百余首,宋金元詞曲也有一百余首,成為我國詩歌藝術中一枝奇葩。此外,寒食節時期還有賜宴、賞花、斗雞、鏤雞子、牽鉤(拔河)、鉆木取火、放風箏、斗百草、拋堶(瓦石器玩物)等許多活動,極大地豐富了我國古代的社會生活。


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