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                            漢族節日—寒食節由來

                                寒食節原發地是山西介休綿山,距今已有2640年的歷史(比端午節的發生早358年)。據《辭源》、《辭海》“寒食節”釋義:春秋時,介之推歷經磨難輔佐晉公子重耳復國后,隱居介休綿山。重耳燒山逼他出來,子推母子隱跡焚身。晉文公為悼念他,介休即依介子推休于此而得名,將綿山改為介山,并下令在子推忌日(后為冬至后一百五日)禁火寒食,形成寒食節。關于寒食節起源于介之推在介休綿山被焚的記載,最早見于西漢桓譚《新論·卷十一·離事》,后陸續載于《后漢書·郡國志·太原郡》、《后漢書·周舉傳》、曹操《明罰令》、《晉書·石勒傳》、酈道元《水經注·汾水》、北魏《齊民要術·煮醴酪》、南宋周密《癸辛雜識》、元代陳元靚《歲時廣記》等典籍。歷史上,寒食清明兩節相近,久而久之,便合為一個節日。《唐會要·卷八十二·休假》明確記載:“(開元)二十四年二月十一日敕:寒食清明,四日為假。大歷十三年二月十五日敕:自今已后,寒食通清明,休假五日。至貞元六年三月九日敕:寒食清明,宜準元日節,前后各給三天。”因此,《中國傳統文化大觀》載:“大致到了唐代,寒食節與清明節合而為一。”

                              每年四月四日,清明節的前一天。傳說,這個節日,是紀念春秋的介之推的。

                              介之推是當年晉國的賢臣,侍奉公子重耳(后為晉文公)。晉國發生內亂,公子重耳被迫逃亡國外,介之推不畏艱難困苦跟隨重耳流亡;曾經割自己腿肉熬湯,獻給重耳。重耳做了國君后,開始時還銘記介之推,但是時間久了,也把他淡忘了。介之推心中十分難受,和其年邁的母親回到家鄉,隱居在山中。

                              有一天,晉文公發現自己左右少了介之推,想起自己忘了獎賞這個"割股奉君"的賢臣,非常內疚,親自跑到他隱居的山中尋找。但是只見山巒重疊,蔥蒼樹木,就是不見介之推的影子。他想,介之推是個孝子,如果放火燒山,他一定會背著母親出來。于是,命令放火燒山,結果火一下蔓延數十里,連燒三日不熄,但介之推沒有出來。火熄之后,大家進山察看,才發現介之推和他的老母相抱在一起,被燒死在深山之中。

                              這事傳出來,人人尊敬和懷念介之推。以后便在他被燒死的這天紀念他,這天就在每年四月清明節的前一天。因為介之推是被火燒死的,大家在這天都不忍心舉火,寧愿吞吃冷食,所以,這天叫"寒食節"。

                              關于由來的其它說法

                              寒食節,是山西民間春季一個重要節日。 

                              寒食節的具體日期,古俗講究在冬至節后的一百零五天。現在山西大部分地區是在清明節前一天過寒食節。榆社縣等少數地方是在清明節前兩天過寒食節。垣曲縣還講究清明節前一天為寒食節,前二天為小寒食。 

                              寒食節的源頭,應為遠古時期人類的火崇拜。古人的生活離不開火,但是,火又往往給人類造成極大的災害,于是古人便認為火有神靈,要祀火。各家所祀之火,每年又要止熄一次。然后再重新燃起新火,稱為改火。改火時,要舉行隆重的祭祖活動,將谷神稷的象征物焚燒,稱為人犧。相沿成俗,便形成了后來的禁火節。 

                              禁火節,后來又轉化為寒食節,用以紀念春秋時期晉國的名臣義士介子推。傳說晉文公流亡期間,介子誰曾經割股為他充饑。晉文公歸國為君后,分封群臣時卻忘記了介于推。介子推不愿夸功爭寵,攜老母隱居于綿山。后來晉文公親自到綿山恭請介子推,介子推不愿為官,躲藏山里。文公手下放火焚山,原意是想逼介子推露面,結果介子推抱著母親被燒死在一棵大樹下。為了紀念這位忠臣義上,于是在介子推死難之日不生火做飯,要吃冷食,稱為寒食節。 

                              漢時,山西民間要禁火一個月表示紀念。三國時期,魏武帝曹操曾下令取消這個習俗。《陰罰令》中有這樣的話,“聞太原、上黨、雁門冬至后百五日皆絕火寒食,云為子推”,“令到人不得寒食。犯者,家長半歲刑,主吏百日刑,令長奪一月俸”。三國歸晉以后,由于與春秋時晉國的“晉”同音同字,因而對晉地掌故特別垂青,紀念介子推的禁火寒食習俗又恢復起來。不過時間縮短為三天。同時,把寒食節紀念介子推的說法推而廣之,擴展到了全國各地。寒食節成了全國性的節日,寒食節禁火寒食成了漢民族的共同風俗習慣。 

                              今天,山西民間禁火寒食的習俗多為一天,只有少數地方仍然習慣禁火三天。晉南地區民間習慣吃涼粉、涼面、涼糕等等。晉北地區習慣以炒奇(即將糕面或白面蒸熟后切成骰子般大小的方塊,曬干后用土炒黃)作為寒食日的食品。一些山區這一天全家吃炒面(即將五谷雜糧炒熟,拌以各類干果脯,磨成面)。 

                              寒食節,民俗要蒸寒燕慶祝,用面粉捏成大拇指一般大的飛燕、鳴禽及走獸、瓜果、花卉等等,蒸熟后著色,插在酸棗樹的針刺上面,裝點室內,也作為禮品送人。


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