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                            漢族節日—除夕食俗

                              在古代的農業社會里,大約自臘月初八以后,家庭主婦們就要忙著張羅過年的食品了。因為腌制臘味所需的時間較長,所以必須盡早準備,我國許多省份都有腌臘味的習俗,其中又以廣東省的臘味最為著名。 

                              蒸年糕,年糕因為諧音“年高”,再加上有著變化多端的口味,幾乎成了家家必備的應景食品。年糕的式樣有方塊狀的黃、白年糕,象征著黃金、白銀,寄寓新年發財的意思。 

                              年糕的口味因地而異。北京人喜食江米或黃米制成的紅棗年糕、百果年糕和白年糕。河北人則喜歡在年糕中加入大棗、小紅豆及綠豆等一起蒸食。山西北部在內蒙古等地,過年時習慣吃黃米粉油炸年糕,有的還包上豆沙、棗泥等餡,山東人則用黃米、紅棗蒸年糕。北方的年糕以甜為主,或蒸或炸,也有人干脆沾糖吃。南方的年糕則甜咸兼具,例如蘇州及寧波的年糕,以粳米制作,味道清淡。除了蒸、炸以外,還可以切片炒食或是煮湯。甜味的年糕以糯米粉加白糖、豬油、玫瑰、桂花、薄荷、素蓉等配料,做工精細,可以直接蒸食或是沾上蛋清油炸。 

                              真正過年的前一夜叫團圓夜,離家在外的游子都要不遠千里萬里趕回家來,全家人要圍坐在一起包餃子過年,餃子的作法是先和面做成餃子皮,再用皮包上餡,餡的內容是五花八門,各種肉、蛋、海鮮、時令蔬菜等都可入餡,正統的餃子吃法,是清水煮熟,撈起后以調有醋、蒜末、香油的醬油為佐料沾著吃。也有炸餃子、烙餃子(鍋貼)等吃法。因為和面的“和”字就是“合”的意思;餃子的“餃”和“交”諧音,“合”和“交”又有相聚之意,所以用餃子象征團聚合歡;又取更歲交子之意,非常吉利;此外,餃子因為形似元寶,過年時吃餃子,也帶有“招財進寶”的吉祥含義。一家大小聚在一起包餃子,話新春,其樂融融。

                              除夕是指每年農歷臘月的最后一天的晚上,它與春節(正月初一)首尾相連。"除夕"中的"除"字是"去;易;交替"的意思,除夕的意思是"月窮歲盡",人們都要除舊部新,有舊歲至此而除,來年另換新歲的意思,是農歷全年最后的一個晚上。故此期間的活動都圍繞著除舊部新,消災祈福為中心。 

                              周、秦時期每年將盡的時候,皇宮里要舉行"大儺"的儀式,擊鼓驅逐疫癘之鬼,稱為"逐除",后又稱除夕的前一天為小除,即小年夜;除夕為大除,即大年夜。 

                              除夕是一年中最使人留戀的一晚。除夕之夜,最為熱鬧、喧闐,天一抹黑,孩子們或者半大小伙子,早已拿著香火,東一聲、西一響地放起鞭炮來了,膽大的放大炮仗,年幼的一只手捂著耳朵,遠遠地探著身子點,其他小孩兩手捂著耳朵,緊張而又焦急地等待著……。此情此景,即使人到白頭也都還能記得。 

                              除夕的主要活動有三項:吃團圓飯,祭祀,守歲。

                              漢族人民在除夕之夜,要殺雞、殺魚,忙得不可開交,直到深夜,才吃;除夕前夕要貼春聯、門神;吃除夕年夜飯前要點香,燃紅燭,三跪九拜,放鞭炮;有的人家還有封門習俗(正月初二男客可串門,直到初三女客方可串門);這晚要把手腳等清洗干凈,吃長菜(表示常有)、青蒜(表示有算計)、香蔥(表示聰明)。

                              少數民族同胞有自己的新年,一般是不過春節的,因而除夕之夜是很平淡的,沒有漢族熱鬧。

                              排列傳統節日,一般把除夕排在首,其次才是春節和其它傳統節日。


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